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A clear-cut distinction between formal (eon) and empirical science (doxa) was made by the pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides (fl. Although his work Peri Physeos (On Nature) is a poem, it may be viewed as an epistemological essay on method in natural science.Parmenides' ἐὸν may refer to a formal system or calculus which can describe nature more precisely than natural languages. A major turning point in the history of early philosophical science was the controversial but successful attempt by Socrates to apply philosophy to the study of human things, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself.
Aristotle maintained the sharp distinction between science and the practical knowledge of artisans, treating theoretical speculation as the highest type of human activity, practical thinking about good living as something less lofty, and the knowledge of artisans as something only suitable for the lower classes.Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself as a disciplined way to study the natural world.It was during this time that scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics reached their modern shapes.That same time period also included the origin of the terms "scientist" and "scientific community", the founding of scientific institutions, and the increasing significance of their interactions with society and other aspects of culture.Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.