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The rats (N = 6 per group) were housed in pairs (same sex) in solid-bottom cages with wood shards for bedding.They had free access to water and ate normal rat chow (type 2014, Harlan).The little we know of WAT role in amino acid metabolism is further limited by our almost nil understanding of the role sex plays on WAT metabolism.In general terms, androgens favor protein deposition (Griggs et al., 1989), and males tend to consume spontaneously more protein than females (Radcliffe & Webster, 1978); on the other hand, estrogens lower body weight (Bryzgalova et al., 2008), in spite of females (women) having—normally—a higher body fat percentage than males (men).The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways.
To obtain a wider picture we studied the four main (largest) WAT sites in parallel, and we included in the analysis (for comparison) a number of gene expressions involved in the control of WAT lipogenesis from glucose and lipolysis.
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For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (Peer J) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences.
However, the level of knowledge of WAT metabolism, other than the control of lipid synthesis and storage, remains remarkably insufficient, constituting a handicap for interpretation of its physiological role (Jensen, 2007).
WAT contains a complete urea cycle, as shown in the present study, which is, probably implicated in the extra-splanchnic production of citrulline, a critical factor for muscle function (Ventura et al., 2013) and inter-organ 2-amino-N transport and utilization.
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The weights of the recovered WAT were computed only to establish the total mass of each WAT site.